China's Top Ten Porcelain Factories in Jingdezhen
All collectors of Chinese porcelains know about Jingdezhen's glorious porcelain history, but not many know about the Top Ten Factories who produced the most incredible works of art during the 20th century.
They once contributed half of the fiscal revenue of Jingdezhen, the "Porcelain Capital";
They are the representatives of the "Four Porcelain" manufacturers during the planned economy period of New China;
Their exquisite porcelain went overseas in the closed period of the 1950s and 1970s;
They have the reputation of "Top Ten Porcelain Factory" in New China.
In Jingdezhen, for most porcelain workers, the "Top Ten Porcelain Factory", which began restructuring in 1995, is still a frequently-appearing vocabulary today. In their hearts, the "Top Ten Porcelain Factory" represents Jingdezhen porcelain. The most glorious history of the industry. So, which porcelain factories are the "Top Ten Porcelain Factory" and what kind of brilliance have they ever had?
The origin of the top ten porcelain factories
"Top Ten Porcelain Factory" is the collective name of the large porcelain factories in Jingdezhen during the planned economy period.
Jianguo Porcelain Company, established on the basis of Jiangxi Porcelain Company during the confiscated period of the Republic of China in April 1950, was the earliest state-owned ceramic enterprise established in the city.
In 1958, various porcelain factories and various porcelain cooperatives were further merged to form 9 large-scale local state-owned household porcelain factories, plus the state-owned Jianguo porcelain factory established in April 1950, called the top ten porcelain factories. "According to this clue, Jianguo Porcelain Factory, Renmin Porcelain Factory, Art Porcelain Factory, Dongfeng Porcelain Factory, Jingxing Porcelain Factory, Guangming Porcelain Factory, Red Star Porcelain Factory, Hongqi Porcelain Factory, Universe Porcelain Factory, and Weimin Porcelain Factory are the real meanings. "Top Ten Porcelain Factory" in Shanghai.
The major porcelain factories began to restructure in 1995 and were basically completed in 2009. However, people are still accustomed to collectively refer to the large porcelain factories of the previous period as the "Top Ten Porcelain Factory".
The establishment of the "Ten Major Porcelain Factory" made Jingdezhen's porcelain production advance by leaps and bounds. The firing process has undergone a major transformation from manual to mechanical and from wood kilns to coal kilns, oil kilns and gas kilns, and has undertaken and completed national ceremonies for many times. , Commemorative porcelain, national porcelain, porcelain export, porcelain for national leaders and other major political tasks, we have made brilliant achievements in the history of ceramics in New China. The glorious course of just a few decades has become a precious history. However, as a product of the planned economy, "Jingdezhen State Kiln Factory Porcelain" has become history, and people will remember this history.
Jingdezhen Jianguo Porcelain Factory
Established in October 1950, it was the first state-owned enterprise after the liberation of Jingdezhen
Jingdezhen Weimin Porcelain Factory
It was completed and put into production in 1965, formerly known as Advanced Fine Art Porcelain Factory, and changed its current name in 1966
Jingdezhen Art Porcelain Factory
Originally known as the Arts and Crafts Porcelain Factory, it was built in 1960 and changed to its current name in 1972
Guangming Porcelain Factory
In 1961, part of Guangming Porcelain Factory was established
Hongqi Porcelain Factory
It was formed by the merger of the sixth, seventh and ninth porcelain factories in 1957
People's Porcelain Factory
In 1956, the three porcelain factories of Huaguang, Qunyi, and China Everbright were merged by a public-private partnership, and they were called "Jingdezhen No. 3 Porcelain Factory". In 1957, it was renamed Xinping Porcelain Factory.
Universe Porcelain Factory
It was originally the first branch of Jianguo Porcelain Factory, built in 1954, and changed its current name to the 13th Ceramic Handicraft Cooperative and the Fourth Porcelain Factory in 1958
Dongfeng Porcelain Factory
The predecessor was Yumin Ceramics Co., Ltd., which was established by a porcelain merchant to raise funds in 1951. In 1953, the company became a joint venture. In 1956, it was called the First Porcelain Factory. In 1958, part of the eighth, eighteenth and nineteenth Porcelain Factory were merged and renamed to the current name.
Jingxing Porcelain Factory
The factory was established in 1956, and its predecessor was Jianhua Porcelain Factory
Red Star Porcelain Factory
It was formed by the merger of the Eleventh and Fourteenth Porcelain Factory in 1958
Xinhua Porcelain Factory
It was originally part of Xinping Porcelain Factory (now Renmin Porcelain Factory), established in 1965
The so-called "Top Ten Porcelain Factory" is the common name of Jingdezhen's large state-owned porcelain factory. In fact, there are more than ten state-owned porcelain factories. ①State-owned porcelain factories (state-owned) have the following: Jianguo porcelain factory, Renmin porcelain factory, Xinhua porcelain factory, art porcelain factory, Hongqi porcelain factory, Hongxing porcelain factory, Dongfeng porcelain factory, universe porcelain factory, Weimin porcelain factory, Huafeng porcelain Factory, Guangming Porcelain Factory, Jingxing Porcelain Factory, Gu Kiln Porcelain Factory, Jing Porcelain Factory, Huadian Porcelain Factory, etc. ②Porcelain factories collectively owned by Jiangxi Ceramics Industry Corporation: Hongguang Porcelain Factory, Shuguang Porcelain Factory, Sculpture Porcelain Factory, Weihua Porcelain Factory, Xinguang Porcelain Factory, etc. ③Porcelain factories owned by the district office and the supporting collectives of Dachang: Yuejin Porcelain Factory, Welfare Porcelain Factory, Lixin Porcelain Factory, Hongwei Porcelain Factory, Changhong Porcelain Factory, etc. ④Porcelain factories of the school-run industrial company: Seven Small Porcelain Factory, No. 1 Middle Porcelain Factory, No. 2 Porcelain Factory, No. 11 Middle Porcelain Factory, Gongda Porcelain Factory, Wenguang Porcelain Factory, etc. ⑤The town-run ceramic factory: Jingcheng Porcelain Factory, Jinghong Porcelain Factory, Hongyuan Porcelain Factory, etc.
Chinese People’s Republic of China Porcelain marks
In the period 1955 to the 1970s a series of interesting porcelains were made in Jingdezhen bearing this style of basemark
They read “Zhong Guo Jingdezhen Zhi =D=” and have a distinctive bracket (called a straw hat by the chinese reserachers) at the top. Originally these marks were handwritten and placed on special porcelains. Into the 1960s and 1970s all examples with this style of mark were stamped and were factory made daily use wares.
In October 1964, when each porcelain factory opened the “Jingdezhen, China” base section, the mark codes for the base section of the top 10 state-owned porcelain factories in Jingdezhen were as follows:
- =A= Red Star Porcelain Factory 红星瓷厂
- =B= Universe Porcelain Factory 宇宙瓷厂
- =C= Weimin Porcelain Factory 为民瓷厂
- =D= Art Porcelain Factory 艺术瓷厂
- =E= Jianguo Porcelain Factory 建国瓷厂
- =F= People Porcelain Factory 人民瓷厂
- =G= Hongqi Porcelain Factory 红旗瓷厂
- =H= Guangming Porcelain Factory 光明瓷厂
- =I= Dongfeng Porcelain Factory 东风瓷厂
- =J= Jingxing Porcelain Factory 景兴瓷厂
- =K= Xinhua Porcelain Factory 新华瓷厂 was separated from Xinping Porcelain Factory, and its code name was K.
- =L= Hongguang Porcelain Factory 红光瓷厂
- =M= Sculpture Porcelain Factory 雕塑瓷厂
- =P= Shuguang Porcelain Factory 曙光瓷厂
The 14 porcelain factories mentioned above were regarded as the “Top Ten Porcelain Factory” in Jingdezhen at that time……In addition,
- =N= Xinguang Porcelain Factory 新光瓷厂 was the city’s ceramic painting factory at that time
- =O= Ceramic Processing department 陶瓷加工
There are also those that use X as the mark code, but it is not clear why the unit uses it.”